Toric steady states

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A mass action system is said to have toric steady states if the steady state ideal is generated by binomials.

Complex balanced systems

It was shown by Craciun et al.[1] that every complex balanced mass action system has toric steady states. In particular, we have that the steady state ideal is generated by the binomials

where (corresponding to the linkage classes).


  1. Gheorghe Craciun, Alicia Dickenstein, Anne Shiu, and Bernd Sturmfels, Toric dynamical systems, J. Symbolic Comput., 44(11):1551–1565, 2009